Richard Allsop氏

Richard Allsop
Emeritus Professor of Transport Studies at University College London

【 ISTTT功績賞 授賞講演 】
本講演録は、Richard Allsop 先生の寄稿を掲載したものです

Appreciation / 謝辞


 Dear Colleagues and Friends, / 親愛なる皆様

It is hard to find words to express the warmth and depth of my appreciation of the recognition that this Award represents. The very names of Professor Kometani, whom I had the honour to meet at ISTTT7, and Professor Sasaki, with whom I had the pleasure of working and sharing thoughts on several visits to Japan, remind us of how much we all owe to our predecessors. In accepting the Award, I would like it to be seen as a tribute to Reuben Smeed and John Wardrop, to whom I owe much of my grounding in the science of transport, and who were two of the founders alongside Tsuna Sasaki of ISTTT.

この賞をいただけたのは、佐佐木綱先生とともにISTTTの創設者となったReuben Smeed 先生と John Wardrop先生の、交通業界の礎石となるたくさんの貢献の実りだと思います。

I first met Smeed and Wardrop about the time of ISTTT2 and from ISTTT4 onwards the Symposia became milestones in my scientific life - perhaps becoming kilometre posts from ISTTT17 onwards, when the symposia became two-yearly instead of three-yearly. I hope this conveys something of my professional appreciation of the Award.


And there is also a personal dimension that I would like to share. In 1944 and 1945 my father fought as a foot soldier in Myanmar, and when he returned home in April 1946 after more than 3 years away, I heard my mother ask him about his time in the army; his only answer was 'The war is behind us - we must look to the future'. I never forgot that answer and grew up convinced that our generation had to try to make the world different. For that reason, when work brought me opportunities for international involvement, I looked particularly towards Japan and Germany - to Germany first because it was nearer and simpler, but before long also to Japan. That makes this Award from your great country especially heartwarming, and I see it also as a tribute to my father's foresight and the upbringing he and my mother gave me.


Coverage of this presentation / このプレゼンテーションの構成


Your invitation for today was to speak about my research activities, past and ongoing. I will do this in five parts:
●Contributions to mathematical programming in transport studies, from which my papers at ISTTT sprang
●How my contribution to research changed in the mid-1970s
●Application of statistics in the field of road safety
●Wider contributions to transport research and its application
●Contributions to the scope and tenor of ISTTT


Contributions to mathematical programming in transport studies /


My work on mathematical programming in transport studies began at University College London (UCL) in 1967 under Professor Reuben Smeed, who was a contemporary of Professor Kometani. I started with co-ordination of traffic signals in street networks by choice of offsets. This led me to analyse delay to a platoon of vehicles moving from one signal to the next and to my paper at ISTTT4, which was a forerunner of the fuller analysis made independently by Professor Masaki Koshi and presented at ISTTT5.

数理プログラミングを用いた交通研究は、1967年、Reuben Smeed 先生のもとで、University College London (UCL)で始まりました。 Reuben Smeed 先生は米谷先生と同年代の方です。交通ネットワークのオフセット選択による交通信号調整からはじめ、第四回ISTTTでの自動車群の交通信号による遅延分析に関する論文を書くこととなりました。これは第五回ISTTTにおける越正毅先生のより完成度の高い分析の先駆でもあります。

My contribution to technique for choosing offsets was to extend a then recent application of dynamic programming. This approach was sidelined by the more successful simulation approach based on cyclic flow profiles that was devised and developed with worldwide success in the software TRANSYT by Dr Dennis Robertson, another Honorary Member of the International Advisory Committee (IAC) of ISTTT.

オフセットを選ぶ技術に対する貢献は、近頃動的プログラミングにも応用されているようです。TRANSYTというソフトウェアでサイクリックフロープロファイルに基づいた、より正確なシミュレーション・アプローチが開発、改善され、このアプローチは取って代わられました。このソフトウェアを作り上げたDennis Robertson 博士はISTTTの国際アドバイザリー・コミッティー(IAC)の名誉会員でもあります。

But working on signal timings in networks alerted me to the then limited scope of calculations for the individual junctions in the networks. This led me to develop the first mathematical model that could represent a wide range of junction layouts and take equal account of all the streams of traffic. With signal timings as control variables and my fresh indicator of junction capacity, maximisation of capacity or minimisation of cycle time became linear programmes and minimisation of delay when traffic was within capacity became a convex programme with linear constraints. This formulation enabled the sensitivity of optimised cycle time, capacity and delay to be analysed by the methods of mathematical programming, as exemplified by my paper at ISTTT5.


At first my junction model was implemented for a given sequence of signal changes making up a cycle, optimising the duration of the cycle and the timings of the changes within the predetermined sequence. Then the model was extended to optimise timings for each group of identically controlled streams of traffic. This was achieved with the help of younger colleagues at UCL, notably Benjamin Heydecker, at first my PhD student and now Professor (and Secretary to the IAC) and the late Dr Stephen Gallivan, later a Professor of operational research in health service delivery. It was also helped by discussion with fellow-Europeans, notably Professor Gennaro Improta and Dr, now Professor, Giulio Cantarella. The extension enabled the sequence of signal changes to be determined by the optimisation within an equivalence class of possible sequences. An elegant piece of combinatorial work by another fellow-European, Dr Suzarte Tully, enabled all the often large number of possible equivalence classes of sequences at a junction to be examined so that the best one could be identified using my model. This optimisation in terms of signal groups was later applied to optimisation in networks using the TRANSYT traffic model at UCL in the thesis of my PhD student, now Professor, S C Wong.

初めての交差点モデルは、決まった信号変化がサイクルになっているところで実行されていました。その後それぞれの交通流に信号変換をあらかじめ決められているタイミングを最適化することにも応用されました。これはUCLの若手研究者たちと共に作業を行いました。特に、当時私の博士課程の学生で、今は教授になったIACの秘書でもあるBenjamin Heydecker氏と、保健サービス・デリバリーの教授になった、当時博士の Stephen Gallivan氏の力を借りることになりました。そのほかにもヨーロッパの同僚、特にGennaro Improta教授と今は教授になった当時博士だったGiulio Cantarella氏との討論でより完成されました。このような活用で、いくつかの可能なシークエンス群のうち、相応するものから信号変化を最適化することが可能になりました。もう一人のヨーロッパの研究者、Suzarte Tully博士の統合作業で、交差点でより大量のシークエンス群から検証し、私のモデルで最適なものを識別することが可能になりました。信号群の最適化 は後ほど、当時私の博士課程学生、今は教授になったS C Wongの学位論文TRANSYTの交通モデルでネットワークの最適化にも使われました。

I also used my model to begin to analyse what happens when buses in one of the streams of traffic are given priority through communication with the signal controller. When a bus claims priority at random, the timing of signal changes is perturbed, and at ISTTT7 I showed how to calculate fixed timings to achieve a desired expected allocation of green time among the streams of traffic taking account of the expected perturbations. This was taken further by Benjamin Heydecker in his PhD thesis.

私のモデルで交通流にバスが優先された信号管制時に起こりうることも分析しました。任意のバス移動が優先され、信号変化のタイミングが影響された場合のことです。第七回ISTTTで信号変化のタイミングが決めておく場合、その影響を考えたうえで、交通流の変化を計算し、緑信号タームの最適な配置を求める発表をしました。その後、このテーマはBenjamin Heydecker氏の博士学位論文で深堀されました。

Much later, starting in 1998 I made fresh analysis related to road junctions. This showed how to calculate, in terms of the pattern of approaching traffic and the design of the junction, the sensitivity of the traffic capacity of any one departing stream of vehicles to the arrival rate of approaching vehicles making any one available movement from any approach road. I showed how to do this in my model for signal-controlled junctions and for roundabouts and priority junctions as modelled in British and Australasian practice. I thought the values of such sensitivities would be useful in design of junctions within traffic management schemes where amounts of traffic making different movements may be affected by the design, but so far I am not aware of the ideas being taken up. Perhaps there is an opportunity waiting here?


In parallel with my application of convex optimisation to traffic signals, I became familiar with uses of such optimisation in trip distribution and traffic assignment within transport planning models. I recognised the desirability of ensuring mutual consistency between the solutions of these two optimisation problems, and was able to encourage my then PhD student Suzanne Evans to formulate a combined convex optimisation procedure at UCL to achieve this. This was subsequently implemented in the USA in collaboration between Dr Evans and Professor David Boyce.

凸関数最適化問題の応用と同時に、トリップ分布と交通量配分計画モデルの最適化に対する理解を深め、これら二種類の最適化問題の一貫性を保つ重要性に気づきました。これを達成するため、UCLで当時博士課程にいたSuzanne Evansに融合された凸関数最適化問題の研究をするよう勧め、その後アメリカでEvans博士とDavid Boyce教授の共同研究によってこれが実現されました。

My thinking about optimisation of signal timings and about transport planning modelling came together when concurrently but quite independently Professor Nathan Gartner, another Honorary Member of the IAC, and I each recognised that altering signal timings must surely alter the choices made by drivers affected by the signal control. This led me at ISTTT6, and soon afterwards Nathan in the USA, to propose what were probably the first bi-level optimisation models in our field. In our models the upper level represented the response of drivers, in terms of distribution and routeing of their journeys, to the traffic conditions as influenced by the signal timings, and the lower level represented the optimisation of timings having regard to the drivers' response. I formulated the problem and offered a solution that represented what happens in a city where the traffic engineer keeps updating the signal timings to optimise for the current traffic. But it was pointed out in 1977 by Dr Tom Dickson during time at UCL that this is not the optimal solution of the model - in fact the engineer should anticipate drivers' responses by using timings that will be optimal for the traffic pattern that they induce. One such optimal solution was later reported in the UCL thesis of my PhD student, now Professor, Suh-wen Chiou.

信号タイミング最適化と交通計画モデリングに対する私の考えはIACの名誉会員でもあるNathan Gartner教授と各自にほぼ同年代に芽生えました。信号タイミングの変化により運転手の選択も変わってくるということに気づき、第六回ISTTTで私が、そのすぐあとNathan教授がアメリカで、この分野ではおそらく初めてのバイ・レベル最適化モデルを提案しました。我々のモデルでは、上位レベルでは運転手の反応を表し、下位レベルではそれを考慮した信号タイミングを最適化しました。問題を定式化し、交通工学者が即時の交通状況に反応し、信号タイミングをアップデートする都市での最善策を提案しました。しかし、UCLにいた1977年に、Tom Dickson博士により、これはモデルの最適値ではないと指摘されました。なぜなら、交通工学者は実際運転手の反応を予測し、最適な結果に導くようなタイミングを用いるべきだからです。その後、当時私の博士課程学生で今教授のSuh-wen ChiouがUCLでそのような最適化を報告書で提案しました。

At the time of ISTTT6, transport planning models were largely steady-state, aiming to represent typical conditions in, say, the midst of the morning peak period. Efforts to represent the build up of traffic from early morning to the height of the peak and the subsequent decline towards mid-morning were still rudimentary. I recognised that to model this in a really sound mathematical way would probably need quite lengthy work by an experienced and skilled mathematician. An opportunity for work of this kind at UCL on dynamic traffic network modelling came in the early 1990s when Dr J D Addison was ready to commit to the work alongside Benjamin Heydecker and I was able to secure funding to start what turned out to be a productive 20-year partnership, with Benjamin taking over the leadership once they were on their way.

第六回のISTTTに、交通計画モデルはほとんど静態のものであり、通勤ラッシュなど典型的な状態をあらわすことを目指すものでした。朝の交通量ピークが過ぎてから、交通量が減ってきたときを表すモデルの構築は、まだはじめの段階にとどまっていたのです。これをモデリングすることは、技術と経験を積み重ねてきた数学者が、長い間にわたってやるべきだと判断しました。1990年代前半にJ D Addison博士、Benjamin Heydeckerと私が共同で研究することになったことで、このような働きにUCLに動的交通ネットワークモデリングに関わるファンディングが与えられました。この生産的なパートナーシップは20年以上にも続き、プロジェクトが独り立ちするにあたり、リーダーはBenjaminに譲りました。

How my contribution to research changed in the mid-1970s /


I have described how my involvement in mathematical programming in transport studies continued for two decades after ISTTT7, but until 1998 I no longer published individual contributions in that field. Now I would like to explain how my contribution to research changed in the mid-1970s. The change goes back to 1972, when I applied and was appointed to direct a newly funded Transport Operations Research Group at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, in north-east England. I was prepared to do this, at a rather young age, because although I would have been happy to continue mainly doing mathematics, or perhaps mainly developing and promoting my traffic signal models, part of me wanted to explore whether I could make a wider contribution through responsibility for encouraging and influencing the contributions of others and the use of research findings in policy and practice.

第七回ISTTTから二十年後まで、交通分野で数理プログラミングにかかわった経緯をお伝えしましたが。それ以降1998年まではこの分野で私個人の貢献はなかったです。なぜ1970年代半ばからの間、研究の重心を変えていたかを説明したいと思います。1972年にイギリスの東北部にあるNewcastle upon Tyne大学に応募し、直接に新しい交通運営研究グループに配属されました。より早い段階からこのようなことには準備できていました。数学や交通信号モデルの開発、広報もちろん楽しかったですが、他の方々の研究成果を持ち、より多くの人を影響し、政策と実践分野においても、それらを活用することで、 より広い分野に貢献することにも挑戦したいとも思っていたからです。

Some leading professors can combine this with deep mathematics, but I recognised that such a wider role might not allow me to immerse myself deeply enough in the detail of mathematical work to keep making personal contributions at the frontier of theory.


And so it was to be. In four years at Newcastle with the team that grew around me I laid foundations and pioneered growth in a group that continues 46 years later. Then, again at an unexpectedly young age, I was appointed to succeed Reuben Smeed as Professor of Transport Studies at UCL. At Newcastle I had found enough time for theory to produce my papers at ISTTT6&7 and elsewhere, but at UCL my appointment brought extra expectations of me in developing postgraduate teaching and in helping to advance transport studies nationally in Britain, and before long also internationally.

実際その通りでした。Newcastleにいる四年の間、私がチームの礎石を作り、成長を導きいたグループはその後46年も続きました。また、想定以上に若い年齢で、UCLのReuben Smeed 教授の跡を継ぎ、UCLの交通研究の教授になりました。Newcastleなどでは、第六回と第七回のISTTTの論文を作成する理論を立てる時間が十分ありましたが、UCLでの就任は、大学院教育、イギリス国内の交通研究促進と国際交流に高い期待を持たれていました。

But before I mention some of these I would like to refer to my other lifelong line of transport research, which began at the then Road Research Laboratory in Britain more than two years before my more mathematical work.


Application of statistics in the field of road safety / 道路安全分野での統計学の応用


I arrived as a new recruit from Cambridge University at the Road Research Laboratory, now TRL Ltd, in 1964 just before there also arrived the report of a pathbreaking year-long field study in the USA of the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of collision-involved drivers compared with those of drivers in general in the same city. Correctly interpreted, this clinched the case for a legal limit on BAC when driving. But the US colleagues' analysis of their data was not as good as their fieldwork - and so it was my analysis of their data that produced the first of the kind of graph of collision risk against BAC that we are all familiar with now. This analysis helped to convince a determined Minister of Transport to introduce a legal BAC limit in Britain in 1967. It also provided continued statistical support for that law, and the statistical basis for analysis of results of other studies, including a repeat study in the USA in the 1990s. Since 2004 I have been providing the main statistical support to those arguing for a lower BAC limit in Britain now than was set 50 years ago.

1964年に今やTRL Ltdになっているケンブリッジ大学の道路研究室に移りました。ちょうどその前に、アメリカで車両衝突に巻き込まれた運転手とその他運転手の血液アルコール集中量(BAC)を比べた革新的なフィールド・スタディー報告書が届きました。正しく解釈されたうえで、この件は運転時のBACに関する法的制限を導きました。しかし、分析手法はフィールドワークほど高質のものではありませんでした。そのため、彼らのデータを持ち、衝突リスクのグラフを当時初めて作り、今や皆様が見慣れているものになっています。この分析は、交通大臣を説得することに役立ち、1967年イギリスにBACの法的制限が付きました。1990年代アメリカで続けられた研究を含め、その後この分析は数理的に法律の制定を支え、多くの他研究の数理的な参考になりました。2004年からは、50年前にイギリスで制定されたBAC制限を下げるべきだと主張する人たちに統計学的にサポートを提供しています。

I also helped to monitor the introduction in 1965 of the first national speed limit on motorways and rural roads in Britain. I analysed the effect on numbers of casualties on rural roads in a first trial period, with results which, together with those for motorways, persuaded the government first to extend the trial and later to make the limit permanent.


Throughout the 1980s I led the statistical monitoring of a national demonstration project for urban safety management - low-cost area-wide road safety engineering to reduce casualties in urban areas outside town centres - and then led production of national guidelines for local authorities to implement it. I lectured on this experience for Professor Sasaki here in Kyoto in 1990.


In 1983 some of us in Britain formed the Parliamentary Advisory Council for Transport Safety (PACTS) to provide Members of Parliament interested in transport safety with independent evidence-based advice - which on quantitative matters means statistically sound advice. Having contributed from the start, I was a Board Member from 1995 until 2015 and am still an advisor. In 1993 PACTS joined with Netherlands and German counterparts to found an analogous European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) in Brussels to advise legislators in the European Union. Having contributed since 1994 I have been a Board Member since 2005.

1983年はイギリスの交通安全議会諮問(PACTS)を創立し、交通安全に興味持つ議員に、議会からは独立した事実中心の助言を提供してきました。つまり、数量的な指標に関して、数理的な助言を提供していたのです。最初からかかわっていたため、1994年から2015年の間ボードメンバーとしても務めました。1993年にはPACTS がオランダとドイツで相当する組織と協力し、ブリュッセルでヨーロッパ交通安全協議会(ETSC)を設立することになりました。ETSCはEUの立法者たちに助言をすることになります。ここでも1994年からかかわり、2005年からはボードメンバーとして務めています。

During the 1990s, for PACTS and to assist our government, I monitored the progress in Britain towards a national road casualty reduction target that had been set in 1987 for the year 2000. As that year approached, I helped to provide a numerical basis for the government's setting of a further target for 2010. At the invitation of the International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences (IATSS), I lectured on this experience to a meeting of highway economists and traffic engineers in Tokyo in 1999. Over the decade to 2010 I chaired for the UK government's Road Safety Advisory Panel a group providing statistical monitoring of progress towards the target. When during that time Police Officer Kenzi Nagano came to UCL at Professor Masaki Koshi's suggestion to learn about road safety policy and practice in Britain, my involvement enabled me to arrange for him to attend a meeting of the Advisory Panel to see policy and progress being discussed at a high level.


For 9 years from its inception in 2006 I led for ETSC a programme known as PIN, which I still advise, to benchmark the progress of European countries towards targets set by the European Union in 2001 and 2010 to reduce the numbers of deaths on their roads. Leadership included assurance of statistical validity of indicators used in the comparisons of progress - sometimes devising an appropriate indicator.


Wider contributions to transport research and its application /


In the first few years after my appointment as Professor at UCL in 1976 I was asked to serve for three years as chairman of two national bodies. One was the Universities Transport Study Group (UTSG), which had been founded in 1967 by Reuben Smeed and a small group of other professors to help colleagues across British and Irish universities to work together to build up the then young discipline of transport studies. UTSG marked its 50th anniversary last year. The other was a Research Council committee charged with allocating government grants for basic (as distinct from applied) research on transport. In this role I helped to bring together for a time funding of this kind in fields of engineering and social science. These two roles as chairman helped to deepen my understanding of the depth and interdisciplinary nature of our subject and the range of research and teaching taking place in our field in Britain.

1976年からUCLで教授として働き始めた最初の数年は二つの国家機構のチェアマンとしても働くよう依頼されました。一つは大学交通研究グループ(UTSG)で、1967年にReuben Smeedと数人の教授が立ち上げ、イギリスとアイルランドの大学が協力し、始めかけの交通研究を支えるためのものでした。去年UTSGは50周年を迎えました。もう一つは研究評議コミッティーで、政府の研究助成金を応用分野ではなく、交通の基礎研究に交付することをサポートするところで、このような工学分野と社会科学に助成金交付することに携わりました。以上二つのチェアマンの役職は. 我々の分野の奥深さと学際性に対しより深い理解が得られ、またこの分野でどれほど幅広い研究が行われているかに対する認識も得られました。

In this period too came two of the most important opportunities to extend my international involvement beyond ISTTT. In 1977 Professor Wilhelm Leutzbach enabled me to spend 6 weeks in his Institute in Karlsruhe in Germany, where I wrote a monograph on fixed-time traffic signal control: Festzeitsteuerung von Lichtsignalanlagen. From this visit stemmed, among many subsequent interactions, a series of annual English Seminars for colleagues from German-speaking universities, the 40th of which took place this year. These have been led in terms of mentoring in technical English first by myself and then by Professor Michael Bell, a former Convenor of the IAC, and now by Professor Jillian Anable, based on our interest in both languages.

この時期、ISTTTを越えた国際的なかかわりに仕事範囲を広める機会が二つ来ました。1977年、ドイツKarlsruheにいるWilhelm Leutzbach教授の機構で六週間滞在することになりました。そこで私は既定交通信号コントロール:「Festzeitsteuerung von Lichtsignalanlagen」のモノグラフを書くことになりました。この訪問から、後続の交流と、ドイツ語で教育活動をする大学との英語セミナーを毎年開くことになり、今年で40周年を迎えます。その後、同じく両言語圏に興味を持っている元IAC召集者でもあるMichael Bell先生、今はJillian Anable先生によって主催されてきました。

Then in 1981, following a visit he had made to UCL under Reuben Smeed a decade earlier, Professor Masamitsu Mori invited me to spend a month in his Institute at Osaka University. That visit was funded by IATSS, and is the first of a number of reasons for me to express appreciation to IATSS for help in enabling me to meet and work with Japanese colleagues.

それで1981年には、森正光先生がUCLでReuben Smeed 先生のもとに訪れて十年後、大阪大学で彼の機構で一か月滞在することを提案しました。この訪問もIATSSが支援して下さっていました。IATSSのおかげさまで、日本人の研究者がたとお会いでき、働く機会が与えられたので、数多くのIATSSに感謝したい理由の内に一番となる理由です。

During that visit, Professor Mori allowed his research team to spend a good deal of time helping him to make me wonderfully welcome in Japan. Foremost among these in my recollection was Hiroshi Tsukaguchi, now Professor, who has since visited us at UCL more than once. Memorable also was spending a long weekend here in Kyoto with Professor Sasaki and having deeper conversations than is possible at international conferences. When I mentioned spending the Sunday visiting the Hozu Rapids, he quickly arranged for Yasuo Asakura, now Professor, to be my guide. When Yasuo came to UCL, he expressed interest in new towns in England and I took him to see several of them.


One of the consequences of that visit to Japan and my subsequent involvements here was a succession of study visits to UCL by upcoming Japanese researchers. I particularly remember one by Professor Noriyuki Inoue because his work at that time on dynamic simulation of traffic management in networks linked well to my involvement then in models of area-wide traffic management.


At UCL, 1981 saw the launching of our London MSc Course in Transport, jointly with our colleagues at Imperial College, as a successor to the pioneering course that Professor Colin Buchanan had started in 1964. I had been developing the concept for this course for 3 years, supported by colleagues at UCL and Imperial College, and it runs to this day - expanded and continually updated, but still recognisable in form and content.

1981年、UCLでImperial Collegeと共同でロンドンの交通修士コースの立ち上げました。これは、1964年からColin Buchanan先生が始めた先駆的なコースの続きであり、UCLとImperial Collegeの同僚の支えのもとで、このコースのコンセプトを3年ほど練り、今まで続いています。拡張され、アップデートされてきましたが、昔の形と内容も残っています。

In 1985 our government decided upon a comprehensive independent review of road traffic law by Dr, now Sir, Peter North, a leading academic lawyer, with me alongside him as a traffic expert. We were supported by experienced civil servants and many submissions of evidence. Our report in 1988 not only made many practical recommendations, mostly implemented by 1991, but was also a treatise on traffic law.

1985年、イギリス政府はPeter North博士を中心により詳細で広範囲の道路交通法レビューを作成することにしました。今は卿になった彼は先導的な学術弁護士で、私は交通専門家として一緒にこの件で働きました。公務員の方々や資料提供者からたくさんの支援を得て、1988年我々が作り上げた報告書は1991年ごろにほとんど実行されるようになった実用的な提案をしただけでなく、交通法の学術書にもなっていました。

My most scientific contribution to the review was to produce the statistical design for a national experiment to assess the effectiveness of rehabilitation courses as part of the penalties for convicted drink-drivers, including a non-standard formula for the required sample sizes. The experiment ran during the 1990s and showed the courses to have been more effective in reducing reoffending than had been expected.


In 1988 IATSS created a forum known as International Scientific Initiatives in Road Traffic (ISIRT) under a largely Japanese and European steering group to explore practicable improvements to mobility. After participation by groups of leading experts in three Round Tables in The Netherlands, Sweden and France, I was invited by the steering group to provide a summary report. This was published by IATSS in London and Tokyo in 1993 under the title Agenda for Safe Access in a Stable Environment.

1988年、IATSSは道路交通における国際科学的イニシアチブ(ISIRT)というフォーラムをはじめ、 日本とヨーロッパ数多くのグループが交わり、モビリティーの実用的な改善策を探る場となっています。オランダ、スウェーデンとフランスで三回ほど優れた専門家が集まった円卓会議に参加し、概要報告書作成の要請がありました。それがIATSSが1993年ロンドンと東京で発刊した「Agenda for Safe Access in a Stable Environment」でした。

In the mid-1990s we at UCL received an application from Mrs, now Dr, Kazuko Okamura of the National Research Institute of Police Sciences (NRIPS) in Kashiwa, with the support of the Institute, to carry out research for the MPhil degree at UCL on issues of road safety for older people in Japan and Britain. This she completed successfully in the year 2000 before going on to doctoral and other research in other European countries as well as in Japan. This connection, combined with my part in our review of traffic law, led to my being invited to speak about traffic policing as one of an international group of expert speakers about various aspects of policing at the 50th anniversary and opening of new headquarters of NRIPS in 1999.


Then in 2003 my involvement with road safety strategy in Britain and elsewhere in Europe led to my being invited to give the keynote address at the launching in Tokyo of a national programme to halve the annual number of road deaths in Japan within 10 years. This ambitious objective was largely met in that the number was brought down from around 8000 in 2002-2003 to only a little over 4000 in 2013-2014, and in 2016 it was brought below 4000 for the first time since 1949.


Contributions to the scope and tenor of ISTTT / ISTTTの活動範囲と方針への私なりの貢献


Although ISTTT7 here in Kyoto in 1977 marked the last of my presentations at a Symposium, it also marked the beginning of another kind of contribution to ISTTT because I was asked to join the International Advisory Committee (IAC) to succeed Reuben Smeed. Then at ISTTT8 in Toronto in 1981, when the first Convenor of the IAC, Professor Robert Herman, chose to stand down, I was invited to act as the Convenor. This I continued to do as the IAC wished until I thought it right to stand down in 1996.

1977年ここ京都での第七回ISTTTはシンポジウムでの最後のプレゼンテーションとはなりましたが、また違った方法でISTTTに貢献するきっかけとなりました。Reuben Smeed先生に次ぎ、国際アドバイザリーコミッティー (IAC) となったからです。それで1981年トロントでの第八回ISTTT で、IAC初めての召集者であるRobert Herman先生が引退され、召集者として働くことに誘われ、1996年、時だと思ったため退任しました。

As Convenor I helped the IAC and thus ISTTT to evolve in three significant ways. The first was to increase confidence in continuation of the series by moving from deciding at each symposium the location of the next, to deciding at each symposium the location of the next but one. (By the way, the present IAC looks further ahead, and considers possibilities for the next symposium but two!) The second was to make way for younger colleagues to join the IAC by ruling that any member who reaches their age of retirement should become an Honorary Member and create a vacancy. The third was to establish a procedure for selecting a new Convenor when the current Convenor stands down, which should usually be after three symposia. In addition, with the help of Professor Wilhelm Leutzbach I negotiated renewed full participation in ISTTT by France as a leading European contributor to transport theory which had somewhat distanced itself from ISTTT in the 1970s. This reintegration was confirmed by the holding of ISTTT13 in Lyon in 1996.

召集者として、IAC、つまりISTTT を三つの面で発展させました。まず始めは毎回次のシンポジウムの開催場所を決める代わりに、もう一つ前のシンポジウムで決めることで、持続性と信頼性を上げることでした。(ちなみに、現在のIAC二つ後のシンポジウム開催まで考えています。) 二つ目は、IAC会員が年になると名誉会員となり、引退することで、若手研究者たちがIACに参加させる機会を与えることです。三つ目は新しい召集者を選出するための投票制度を作ったことです。三回ほど召集者として働いたら、引退するのが普通ですが、その後に行うとのことです。また、Wilhelm Leutzbach教授の支援の下で、19700年代からISTTTから離れていったフランスもISTTTに再び参加する方針で交渉をしました。 これは1996年リアンで第13回ISTTTが開催されることによってより確実になりました。

In 2006 I became an Honorary Member of the IAC according to the rule that had been adopted on my advice. As an Honorary Member I continued to attend IAC meetings until ISTTT20 in 3013. More particularly, I played a full part in organising the 17th symposium in London in 2007 and then served on the task force chaired by Professor Masao Kuwahara which identified a group of pioneers from the earliest years of the symposia, including Professor Tsuna Sasaki, to be recognised as Founders of the ISTTT. This task was seen as important and was completed to the IAC's satisfaction just about in time for living memory to reach back to the earliest years. Since 2013 I have contributed to the work of the IAC by email, trying to encourage the fuller globalisation achieved by ISTTT over the last decade, growing far beyond its transatlantic origins and initial connections in Japan and Australia. Latterly I have joined in welcoming the diversification of the IAC by invitation of leading female contributors to join the Committee.


Now I am having to recognise that my further contributions in the ISTTT context and more widely can only be modest and selective, but it is a privilege to be asked to reflect on what faith has sustained me*, many good colleagues and friends have helped me, and circumstances have allowed me, to put into what we have all been doing together to advance knowledge and its application in transport - and I thank you for your kind attention.


* The words in italics are inserted retrospectively in the light of words and thoughts exchanged at the award ceremony and recollection of the previously mentioned 'deeper conversations' between Tsuna Sasaki and me in 1981, in which we had spoken of our academic life and work as part of the living out of our faiths, his Buddhist, mine Christian.

* こちら斜体のところは、発表後に追加したもので、授賞式で思ったことと、前で話した1981年、佐佐木先生としていた「より深い会話」から思い出したものです。そこで、研究生活と仕事がそれぞれ仏教、キリスト教徒としての信仰に根付いていたものだという話も分かちあいました。


Richard Allsop
Centre for Transport Studies / 交通研究センター
University College London

December 2018

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